What is Fiber Science? Why it is Important?
Fiber science is a very important and fundamental field in textile. Fiber science deals with the physical, chemical and engineering properties of fibrous materials and their applications but mainly it deals with physical properties of fibers.
Figure: Raw Cotton Fibers
Fibers are the fundamental and the smallest elements constituting textile materials. The mechanical functional performance of garments is very much dependent on the fiber mechanical and surface properties, which are largely determined by the constituting polymeric molecules, internal structural features and surface morphological characteristics of individual fibers. Scientific understanding and knowledge of the fiber properties and modeling the mechanical behavior of fibers are essential for engineering of clothing and textile products.
Figure: This is how each and every step of textile manufacturing including raw materials effects the performance of a textile product.
Fiber science is a very important and fundamental field in textile. Fiber science deals with the physical, chemical and engineering properties of fibrous materials and their applications but mainly it deals with physical properties of fibers. Fiber science helps determine the properties and structure of fibers. It is detrimental in identifying all kinds of fibers through physical and chemical methods and telling those fibers apart from each other. Popular methods for the identification of fibers in a fabric are absorption of infrared radiation, Raman scattering of light, X-ray diffraction studies and optical microscopy.
Normally, when we see a fabric, we can't tell which fibers were used to make it. Fiber science imparts us with the knowledge how to identify fibers used in the production of said fabric, how to make fiber more lustrous, how to low the cost of production of fabric, how to blend different fibers with other fibers to enhance their physical and chemical properties, how to dye fibers effectively and many more.
It is all due to advancement in the field of fiber science that high-performance fibers and fiber-reinforced composites, textile materials in geotechnical and biomedical applications, polymers for electronics are made possible. Physical properties of fibers help us enable to make blend fabrics which are often more durable than natural fabrics and cheaper in cost. A good example of this is poly-blend fabric. With the help of fiber science, it is possible to make almost every kind of fabric blending different kinds of fibers.
Fiber science is directly related to textile raw materials. With the help of fiber science, we can make best use of textile raw materials and compatible materials can be used in the production of various fabrics and cost of the fabrics produced by these beautiful combinations can be lowered. All the knowledge we possess about various properties of various textile raw materials is due to the knowledge of their science which is obtained through "Fiber Science".
It is all due to fiber science that fabrics such as waterproof jackets, bulletproof jackets, space suits and other fabrics, specifically made to be used for specific purposes, were made possible. In short, "Fiber Science" is backbone of the humongous development in the textile sector and continues to be so.
Manufacturing of Viscose Rayon Fibers
Rayon fiber made from "viscose process" is called Viscose Rayon. Viscose Rayon is the oldest commercial manmade fiber. Viscose Rayon is a manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose. Out of all the fibers produced, rayon is the most perplexing to consumers.
Polycarbonate Polymers: History, Synthesis, Properties, Pros and Cones, and Applications
Polycarbonate polymers (PC) have carbonate groups in their chemical structures. They are basically a type if thermoplastic polymers. These polymers are strong and tough materials and are easily thermoformed and molded, so they have a wide use in engineering applications. They are also widely used in many other wide range applications i.e. electronic, data storage, construction, aircraft etc.
Why do fabrics shrink? Shrinkage in Fabrics!
During the manufacturing process of fabric or we call it fabric processing, fabric comes in lot of tension and stretches when it moves from one machine to another which causes stretching in fabric structure and when this tension is removed, and fabric is relaxed it tends to get back in its original structure causing shrinkage.
Worsted Yarn Manufacturing Process
A fine smooth yarn spun from combed long staple wool. Worsted yarns are more tightly twisted than the bulkier woolen yarns. The soft, heavy yarn is strong and durable and is often used for sweaters. Worsted yarns are also used for fine dress fabrics and suit materials.