Cleaner Production Technology and its Principles for Manufacturing Manmade Fibers
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) defined "Cleaner Production Technology" rightly as follows:
"Cleaner Production is the continuous application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy towards processes, products and services in order to increase overall efficiency and reduce damage and risks for humans and the environment."
Key features of Cleaner Production Technology
- Continuous: It is a continuous environmental management approach.
- Preventive: CP seeks to prevent pollution from being generated, rather than cleaning it up after it is generated. The simple reason is that this saves costs.
- Integrated: To be effective, CP should be integrated into the daily operations of a company. In the same manner as companies do not do economic management only one time but are doing this as an on-going integrated part of operations.
- Processes, products and services: Opportunities to improve the environmental (and social and economic) performance of a company can be identified through CP, not only by adjusting HOW things are done (processes) but also WHAT is done (products) and WHAT SYSTEMS (services) are applied.
CP is also known as:
- Waste minimization
- Pollution prevention
- Green productivity
It includes dynamic innovative work into new structures, frameworks, courses of action, materials and items that are more asset and vitality effective, whilst captivating and engaging individuals. Such methodologies have gotten essential for organizations, establishments, governments, and common pop culture to guarantee naturally, socially, and monetarily economical, utilization production and administration techniques. These include instructive, preparing, administration, and specialized support programs, which are required to quicken the appropriation of cleaner production and maintainability by commercial ventures, governments and colleges.
Examples for cleaner production options are:
- Documentation of consumption (as a basic analysis of material and energy flows)
- Use of indicators and controlling (to identify losses from poor planning, poor education and training, mistakes)
- Substitution of raw materials and auxiliary materials (especially renewable materials and energy)
- Increase of useful life of auxiliary materials and process liquids (by avoiding drag in, drag out, contamination)
- Improved control and automatization
- Reuse of waste (internal or external)
- New, low waste processes and technologies
Cleaner Production Techniques
Several complementary CP techniques or practices are possible, ranging from low or even no cost solutions to high investment, advanced clean technologies. A common distinction for CP implementation in developing countries is:
Appropriate provisions must be taken to prevent leaks and spills. Good housekeeping is also the proper way to achieve proper, standardized operation and maintenance procedures and practices.
Input Material Change
Hazardous or non-renewable inputs must be replaced by less hazardous or renewable materials or by materials with a longer service lifetime whenever available.
Better Process Control
Modification of the working procedures, machine instructions and process record keeping for operating the processes at higher efficiency and lower rates of waste and emission generation.
Production equipment must be modified so as to run the processes at higher efficiency and lower the rates of waste and emission generation.
Technology, processing sequence and/or synthesis pathway must be replaced from time to time in order to minimize the rates of waste and emission generation during production.
Wasted materials must be reused or recycled in the same process or for another useful application within the company to minimize the cost and for making the process efficient.
Production of Useful By-Products
Previously discarded wastes can be transformed or converted into materials that can be reused or recycled for another application outside the company which can be proved as a very desirable scenario according to the perspective of company or owner.
Product characteristics can be modified in order to minimize the environmental impacts of the product during or after its use (disposal) or to minimize the environmental impacts of its production.
The benefits of cleaner production include decreased waste, the recovery of valuable by-products, improved environmental performance, increased resource productivity, increased efficiency, lower energy consumption, and an overall reduction in costs.
CP Principles in Manufacturing Manmade Fibers
The classic environmental issues in manufacturing manmade fibers include high water consumption, chemical pollution of water streams from dyeing and need for disposing emissions used in the production of manmade fibers. The work environment issues have also been high on the agenda. These four principles are utilized in every manufacturing process when cleaner production technology is taken into account in manufacturing.
The precautionary principle moves the burden of proof for the safety and efficacy of a process from society to the person proposing the process. That is, it is up to the 'potential polluter' to prove that their activity does not cause harm rather than society having to prove that the activity causes harm. The precautionary principle is an inherent part of achieving sustainable development.
Action should be taken as far as possible to avoid damage to the environment before it occurs and recognizes that there are limitations and uncertainties to scientific knowledge.
In manufacturing manmade fibres, solvents and other chemicals must be taken into account.
It is better safe than sorry - is cheaper and more effective to prevent environmental damage than to attempt to manage or fix it. Prevention requires going upstream in the production process to prevent the source of the problem instead of attempting damage control downstream. Pollution prevention replaces pollution control.
The Public Participation Principle
Public access to information about emissions and releases of hazardous chemicals from manufacturing facilities, the amounts and types of materials used in production processes and the chemical ingredient in products is force decision makers to move to safer alternatives.
Integrated and Holistic Approach
Aims to reduce the environmental, health and safety impacts of products over their entire life cycles, from raw materials extraction, through manufacturing and use, to the 'ultimate' disposal of the product. Society needs to adopt an integrated approach to environment resource use and consumption to ensure that addressing one pollution problem does not simply create another. This can happen particularly when regulators and practitioners concentrate on one medium, for example air, and do not take account of the impacts on other media of fixing that pollution problem. For example, air pollution control techniques can transfer the pollution to solid waste or water. This may not be the best overall for the environment. By integrating decision making and taking a life-cycle assessment to product and service development and delivery, environmental impacts are minimized.
What are the best sustainable textile options?
Nature offers us a lot of fibers that are highly sustainable; these fibers which are found in plant leaves, fruits, seed covers, and stalk can be used in the manufacturing of sustainable textile products. Fibers from these plants can be considered to be totally renewable and biodegradable.
Why do fabrics shrink? Shrinkage in Fabrics!
During the manufacturing process of fabric or we call it fabric processing, fabric comes in lot of tension and stretches when it moves from one machine to another which causes stretching in fabric structure and when this tension is removed, and fabric is relaxed it tends to get back in its original structure causing shrinkage.
Worsted Yarn Manufacturing Process
A fine smooth yarn spun from combed long staple wool. Worsted yarns are more tightly twisted than the bulkier woolen yarns. The soft, heavy yarn is strong and durable and is often used for sweaters. Worsted yarns are also used for fine dress fabrics and suit materials.