Cleaner Production Technology and its Principles for Manufacturing Manmade Fibers

Cleaner Production Technology and its Principles for Manufacturing Manmade Fibers


United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) defined "Cleaner Production Technology" rightly as follows:

"Cleaner Production is the continuous application of an integrated, preventive environmental strategy towards processes, products and services in order to increase overall efficiency and reduce damage and risks for humans and the environment."

Key features of Cleaner Production Technology

  • Continuous: It is a continuous environmental management approach.
  • Preventive: CP seeks to prevent pollution from being generated, rather than cleaning it up after it is generated. The simple reason is that this saves costs.
  • Integrated: To be effective, CP should be integrated into the daily operations of a company. In the same manner as companies do not do economic management only one time but are doing this as an on-going integrated part of operations.
  • Processes, products and services: Opportunities to improve the environmental (and social and economic) performance of a company can be identified through CP, not only by adjusting HOW things are done (processes) but also WHAT is done (products) and WHAT SYSTEMS (services) are applied.

CP is also known as:

  1. Eco-efficiency
  2. Waste minimization
  3. Pollution prevention
  4. Green productivity

It includes dynamic innovative work into new structures, frameworks, courses of action, materials and items that are more asset and vitality effective, whilst captivating and engaging individuals. Such methodologies have gotten essential for organizations, establishments, governments, and common pop culture to guarantee naturally, socially, and monetarily economical, utilization production and administration techniques. These include instructive, preparing, administration, and specialized support programs, which are required to quicken the appropriation of cleaner production and maintainability by commercial ventures, governments and colleges.

Examples for cleaner production options are:

  • Documentation of consumption (as a basic analysis of material and energy flows)
  • Use of indicators and controlling (to identify losses from poor planning, poor education and training, mistakes)
  • Substitution of raw materials and auxiliary materials (especially renewable materials and energy)
  • Increase of useful life of auxiliary materials and process liquids (by avoiding drag in, drag out, contamination)
  • Improved control and automatization
  • Reuse of waste (internal or external)
  • New, low waste processes and technologies

Cleaner Production Techniques

Several complementary CP techniques or practices are possible, ranging from low or even no cost solutions to high investment, advanced clean technologies. A common distinction for CP implementation in developing countries is:

Good Housekeeping

Appropriate provisions must be taken to prevent leaks and spills. Good housekeeping is also the proper way to achieve proper, standardized operation and maintenance procedures and practices.

Input Material Change

Hazardous or non-renewable inputs must be replaced by less hazardous or renewable materials or by materials with a longer service lifetime whenever available.

Better Process Control

Modification of the working procedures, machine instructions and process record keeping for operating the processes at higher efficiency and lower rates of waste and emission generation.

Equipment Modification

Production equipment must be modified so as to run the processes at higher efficiency and lower the rates of waste and emission generation.

Technology Change

Technology, processing sequence and/or synthesis pathway must be replaced from time to time in order to minimize the rates of waste and emission generation during production.

On-Site Recovery/Reuse

Wasted materials must be reused or recycled in the same process or for another useful application within the company to minimize the cost and for making the process efficient.

Production of Useful By-Products

Previously discarded wastes can be transformed or converted into materials that can be reused or recycled for another application outside the company which can be proved as a very desirable scenario according to the perspective of company or owner.

Product Modification

Product characteristics can be modified in order to minimize the environmental impacts of the product during or after its use (disposal) or to minimize the environmental impacts of its production.

The benefits of cleaner production include decreased waste, the recovery of valuable by-products, improved environmental performance, increased resource productivity, increased efficiency, lower energy consumption, and an overall reduction in costs.

CP Principles in Manufacturing Manmade Fibers

The classic environmental issues in manufacturing manmade fibers include high water consumption, chemical pollution of water streams from dyeing and need for disposing emissions used in the production of manmade fibers. The work environment issues have also been high on the agenda. These four principles are utilized in every manufacturing process when cleaner production technology is taken into account in manufacturing.

Precautionary Principle

The precautionary principle moves the burden of proof for the safety and efficacy of a process from society to the person proposing the process. That is, it is up to the 'potential polluter' to prove that their activity does not cause harm rather than society having to prove that the activity causes harm. The precautionary principle is an inherent part of achieving sustainable development.

Action should be taken as far as possible to avoid damage to the environment before it occurs and recognizes that there are limitations and uncertainties to scientific knowledge.

In manufacturing manmade fibres, solvents and other chemicals must be taken into account.

Preventive Principle

It is better safe than sorry - is cheaper and more effective to prevent environmental damage than to attempt to manage or fix it. Prevention requires going upstream in the production process to prevent the source of the problem instead of attempting damage control downstream. Pollution prevention replaces pollution control.

The Public Participation Principle

Public access to information about emissions and releases of hazardous chemicals from manufacturing facilities, the amounts and types of materials used in production processes and the chemical ingredient in products is force decision makers to move to safer alternatives.

Integrated and Holistic Approach

Aims to reduce the environmental, health and safety impacts of products over their entire life cycles, from raw materials extraction, through manufacturing and use, to the 'ultimate' disposal of the product. Society needs to adopt an integrated approach to environment resource use and consumption to ensure that addressing one pollution problem does not simply create another. This can happen particularly when regulators and practitioners concentrate on one medium, for example air, and do not take account of the impacts on other media of fixing that pollution problem. For example, air pollution control techniques can transfer the pollution to solid waste or water. This may not be the best overall for the environment. By integrating decision making and taking a life-cycle assessment to product and service development and delivery, environmental impacts are minimized.

Muhammad Rehan Ashraf

I am a Textile Engineer, founder and editor of "Textile Trendz". Currently working in an export-oriented textile organization. I love to share my knowledge about textiles.